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BarKode
The Barents and Kara Seas oceanographic data base
(1898-1998)
BarKode 1898 - 1998
V. Golubev ,   A. Zuyev ,   C. Oelke

Murmansk Marine Biological Institute, Murmansk, Russia
International ACSYS/CliC Project Office, Troms, Norway


Introduction

Oceanographic data collected by ocean research organizations in Russia, the USA, the United Kingdom, Germany, Norway, and Poland for the Barents, Kara and White Seas region are presented in this atlas. Recently declassified naval data from Norway, the USA, and the UK are also included.

More than 1,000,000 oceanographic stations containing temperature and/or sea-water salinity data were originally selected. After correcting errors and eliminating duplicates, data from 206,300 checked stations were placed on CD-ROM, together with many figures describing the characteristics of both the single-input and combined data set. For convenience, the original profiles and those excluded at every quality-control step are also included on the CD-ROM.

In addition, temperature and salinity measurements were interpolated to the following standard horizons: 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250, 300 m, and bottom. This atlas covers the 100-year period 1898 to 1998 and is, to date, the most complete oceanographic data collection for these Arctic shelf seas. This data set is complemented by more than 9,000 measurements of sea surface temperature, which the Norwegian Polar Institute recently digitized from ships' logbooks. They cover the same geographical area within the time period 1867-1912.

Evaluation

This is a preliminary evaluation of the BarKode data base. We gridded all measurement to a 1 x 2 (latitude x longitude) grid and calculated monthly averages of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS) for the time period with good data coverage (1920 to 1998).

Average monthly temperature and salinity plots can be found below, together with the deviation of each year from the long-term monthly mean (T anom. (C), S anom. (psu)). This way of calculating anomalies accounts for temporal and spatial inhomogenity of the data base.

Month 1920-1939 1940-1959 1960-1979 1980-1998
January   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
February   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
March   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
April   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
May   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
June   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
July   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
August   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
September   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
October   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
November   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.
December   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.   T anom. S anom.

Geographical station distribution by month (all data sources):

Geographical station distribution by data source:

In order to get an impression of the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrographic measurements, the BarKode area was divided into 4 sub-regions. The following plots refer to these regions.

Region 1: 5 - 55E,   66 - 75N  Southern Barents Sea
Region 2: 5 - 55E,   75 - 84N  Northern Barents Sea
Region 3: 55 - 110E,   66 - 75N  Southern Kara Sea
Region 4: 55 - 110E,   75 - 84N  Northern Kara Sea

Temperature:

Salinity:

CD-ROM and data report can be obtained from the CliC International Project Office free of charge (for non-profit organizations). Please contact clic@npolar.no.